Electronics (IDE), later renamed to ATA. The original name reflected the
innovative integration of HDD controller with HDD itself, which was not
found in earlier disks. Moving the HDD controller from the interface
card to the disk drive helped to standardize interfaces, and to reduce
the cost and complexity. The 40 pin IDE/ATA connection of PATA transfers
16 bits of data at a time on the data cable. higher speed requirements
for data transfer to and from the hard drive led to an "ultra DMA" mode.
However, SATA hard disk drive is completely different from ATA or IDE
HDD. SATA, standing for serial ATA, is a relatively new interface that effectively improves data transfer rate of hard disk drives. The SATA data cable has one data pair for differential transmission of data to the device, and one pair for differential receiving from the device, just like EIA-422. That requires that data be transmitted serially. Similar differential signaling system is used in RS485, LocalTalk, USB, Firewire, and differential SCSI. The major brands of SATA 2 hard drives are Western Digital and Seagate.
SATA, UDMA IDE and IDE hard disk drives use difference ribbon cables.
SATA cables have small connectors. UDMA IDE cables have 80-pins while
the pin configuration for standard IDE hard disk drive cables stays at